Cognitive scaffolds are often helpful as they decrease cognitive load, but they leave us epistemically vulnerable. Probing the Parallels,” Zoe Drayson compares and contrasts Williamson’s argument for the indispensability of externalist propositional attitudes with Clark and Chalmers’ argument for the indispensability of external mental states. But, according to Carter and Kallestrup, a problem arises once one accepts this additional condition. For scholars working on extended mind and epistemology, or for those interested in the meta-issue of the relationship between epistemology and metaphysics, this volume is essential reading. Of course, no volume can be expected to do it all, and this one already does quite a bit.

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Wheeler starts with a credit nfpr on knowledge. In what follows, I offer a summary of each of the articles and a brief discussion of the volume’s strengths and weaknesses. In order to avoid the problem of cognitive bloat — where everything with which we are in causal contact becomes part of the mind — Clark has proposed conditions what have become known in the literature as “trust and glue” conditions for non-biological artifacts to ndpd as part of a cognitive system Clark But, according to Carter and Kallestrup, a problem arises once one accepts this additional condition.

The notebook seems to meet the “trust and glue” conditions and is supposed to be a paradigm example of extended cognition.

Several new operations are at the feasibility study stage but whether enough of them will make it to production remains to be seen. Carter and Kallestrup argue that these conditions are not sufficient and that an additional condition needs to be met. In “Cyborgs, Knowledge, and Credit for Learning,” Ben Kotzee considers whether we should give credit to students who rely on technology.


For the reliabilist, stable cognitive faculties are paradigm examples of epistemic virtue. This may be a serious concern for those who are attracted to Shaun Gallagher’s social externalism He receives a 92 as well. Much of that output, however, is committed to Japanese buyers keen to diversify their sourcing after the China Shock. If your smartphone is part of your mind, our legal system will need to treat smartphones differently than mere property. But if smartphones and their search engines constitute what we know, then our obligations would seem to expand considerably.

Implications for Extended Conceptions of Cognition and Knowledge,” Paul Smart considers some of the conditions for cognitive extension — including accessibility, availability, trust, personalization, and reciprocity — and how emerging digital technologies fare with respect to them. A lack of knowledge is often exculpatory.

NDPR – What does NDPR stand for? The Free Dictionary

Taken together, the articles offer a sustained and focused discussion of the conditions for extension. The Bounds of Cognition.

Are tracking theories of knowledge Nozick or safety conditions Williamson compatible with extended mind or cognition? Or consider the plausible claim that one’s ethical, legal, and professional obligations are tied to what one knows.

Neodymium (Nd) & Praseodymium (Pr) Primer

Knowledge and Its LimitsOxford: This thought experiment is one of the most interesting in the volume; I wish I had space here to discuss it further. In Andy Clark and David Chalmers published an article entitled “The Extended Mind” in which they argued that the mind extends beyond the skull.

Indeed, according to Adamas Intelligence, which specializes in critical mineral markets, an explicit focus of the most recent inspections has been on companies involved in the rare earths sector.


This anthology has a number of strengths. They do so by considering a number of counterexamples to extended knowledge and argue that the only way to overcome these counterexamples is to acknowledge that reflection is needed for knowledge. To be clear, they weren’t the first to challenge the boundaries of the mind.

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Pritchard then considers the threshold for extended knowledge on this account. They offer an endorsement condition:. I suppose we could say that corresponding to we-intentions there exists we-knowledge. The media doesn’t constitute an agent’s knowledge but it is not entirely distinct from it.


Kotzee seems to be suggesting that extended knowledge is procedural rather than propositional. The smartphone is often used as an example of cognitive extension. The extended cognition thesis is the thesis that cognitive processes such as memory or perception can nfpr sometimes do extend beyond the boundaries of the skin. Where are the iisw abilities that determine credit located?

This seems to conflict with Clark and Chalmers’ claim that Otto knows more than just how to find out where the museum is by looking in his notebookbut knows that the museum is located on 53 rd Street.